The grape is a fruit from the vine plant, family of the Vitaceae and part of the genus Vitis. The cultivation of the grape can be grouped in 6 up to 300 fruits per bunch. Their colors can be from green, black, pink, purple, brown, white and orange, the latter being caused by the change of genes. In this article we will know how to plant grapes .
It is known that the grapes that have been produced around the world are used in approximately 80% for the production of wines and alcoholic beverages, 10% for its use as fresh fruit, 5% for the manufacture of raisins and 5% for the juice production.
Vine varieties can be classified into four groups:
- Rustic vector : They are also called as common grapes and are characterized by having a greater resistance to certain diseases and easier to perform certain cultural practices. These fruits can be easily separated from the peel being very useful to be consumed naturally. It is also used for industrial purposes such as the production of wines, juices, alcoholic beverages, vinegar and jam. The main varieties are: Rosada Falls, Blanca Cataratas, Magdalena and Elizabeth, among others.
- Fine Vector : This grape cultivation is of high quality, favoring its natural consumption even more. This fruit is part of the Vitis vinifera species, besides being extremely sensitive to fungal diseases. Among the main varieties we can mention: Italy, Ruby, Benitaka, Brazil, Red Globe, Piratininga, Ribier, among others.
- Without seeds : These do not have seeds or only have some traces of seeds. This forms part of the Vitis vinifera species or its hybrids with other species. Among its main varieties we can mention: Perlette, Centennial and Thompson Seedless.
- Wine Grapes : These are used in order to be used in order to be raw material for the production of high quality wines, due to the accumulation of sugar that berries possess. They are usually made up of European species. The main varieties are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Tannat, Malbec, Nebbiolo, Carmenere, Sauvignon Blanc, Zinfandel, among others.
TIPS TO KEEP IN MIND ABOUT HOW TO PLANT GRAPES
WHEN TO SOW GRAPES
The grape plant is considered a temperate climate crop, however the vine can adapt to a wide variety of climate. Offering a better development in Mediterranean climates with dry and hot summers and cold and rainy winters.
Another important factor when it comes to planting grapes is light, as it can significantly affect the production and accumulation of sugars, which is why a high brightness during the growing season considerably improves the quality of the berry.
The temperature is another important factor when it comes to how to plant grapes since an optimal temperature range (15 to 30 ° C) promotes optimal growth. This not only influences photosynthesis and its productivity, but also the phenological cycle (days between flowering and harvest).
If it is a region with a higher average temperature, it will allow much earlier production, allowing us to better control the water supply.
Another point to keep in mind about how to plant grapes is that this plant requires a period of hibernal rest for a correct development of the buds, a vigorous vegetative growth and a good fruiting. This period is induced by low temperatures and subtropical drought in semi-arid tropical regions.
You should also avoid putting the plant in places where it is exposed to strong winds, or otherwise use a barrier to control the wind.
LAND TO BE USED IN THE CULTIVATION OF GRAPES
The texture of the terrain must be sandy loam, relatively fertile and with good drainage, the optimum pH being an interval between 6 to 7.5, with slopes of less than 20%.
Keep in mind that when it comes to how to plant grapes, the properties of the soil become more important than their fertility, since the soil can be fertilized to meet the nutritional needs of the vineyard.
One tip on how to plant grapes is to choose a light, deep soil, without large rocks and should have waterproof clay layers, with good drainage.
WATERING THE GRAPE PLANT
When it comes to how to plant grapes, their water needs are very different depending on the stage they are going through, since during sprouting they require 15 mm, in flowering 10 mm (a greater quantity could be harmful), in the fruit setting about 60 to 120 mm, in the ripening about 80 to 100 mm and finally in the vintage or harvest should not exceed 40 mm, being in this season where you should avoid the rain as it could harm the production.
STEPS TO FOLLOW ON HOW TO PLANT GRAPES
An important step on how to sow grapes is the choice of the variety, being the most recommended to make a visit to the garden center closest to your town and ask for a variety that adapts to the climatic conditions, since there are many vine varieties . In addition to climate it is also essential to ask about their resistance to diseases. In case you want to plant it in pots you can ask about the grape cultivation ‘Pixie’, since its size is very well suited to a pot.
To begin the process of how to sow grapes you must start with the cleaning of the land, eliminating all traces of previous vegetables and stones. Subsequently we must perform a deep work in the soil being the ideal 40 to 80 cm to compact the soil facilitating the growth of the plant.
Later we will put tutors so that they can grow properly and finally holes are made to introduce the plants to cover them and water them later.
The vine plant requires support to grow properly. In case you choose to grow grapes in pots you can opt for a lightweight lattice either wood or plastic.
The cultivation of the grape grows very long, reason for which you must use a pergola or gazebo as a structure. But this is not the only technique of entanglement. You can for example use a stake as a ventilation lattice. You can also support the vine plant with a stake with the umbrella method. However, if you want to plant grapes in pots, the standard method of lattice is an easy and simple way to do it.
CULTIVATION OF THE GRAPE IN POTS
In case you want to know how to plant grapes in pots you should bear in mind that the container must be large and resistant so that it has the capacity to support a vigorous vine plant. The requirements are that the pot is from 56 to 75 liters, with at least 40 to 45 cm deep and 45 to 60 cm wide. You should start with a small pot and later transplant until you reach the largest container.
CARE OF THE GRAPE
It should be periodically placed compost or mature manure. During the first year in the summer and spring seasons you can apply a fertilizer that is of general use to the plant. Beginning the following year you should start to fertilize the grape crop with a fertilizer low in nitrogen, but with higher content of potassium and phosphorus when spring begins and you can see the first flower buds.
You must take care of eliminating the weeds that compete for resources.
When the vine plant is still young the first pruning is done in order to give it the desired shape, this can change according to the region and the grape variety. There are many types of pruning and this depends on the chosen structure the same ones that have been shown in an image above. This type of pruning is usually done during the first 3 to 4 years in the winter and spring season.
This is done after the plant has acquired the desired shape, in order to control its growth. Eta is done by choosing those branches and buds in poor condition and sprouting each year to allow the grapes to enjoy greater sunlight and ventilation. By performing this pruning we will be increasing its quality and resistance to pests.
Harvesting begins after 2 to 3 years of age. In general, the grapes mature between August and October. However, this depends a lot on the variety and climate where it has been planted.
One way to know if they are ready for harvest is to taste the grapes. In case it has a sweet and pleasant taste it is time to start the harvest. Otherwise you can leave for a few days. Another way to observe the maturation of the grapes in counting 1 to 3 weeks after they change color, this time depends a lot on the variety and climate. However, the taste is everything if you love the taste it’s harvest time.